Estudio de Validación de la Escala de Resiliencia de Connor-Davidson de 10- ítems entre Estudiantes de Medicina y Psicología Mexicanos


  • Leopoldo Daniel-González Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
  • Cirilo Humberto García Cadena Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
  • Adrián Valle de la O Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud. Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey
  • Tomás Caycho-Rodriguez Facultad de Psicología. Universidad Privada del Norte, Perú.
  • Enrique Martinez-Gómez Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, México.


Palabras clave:

resilience; screening; confirmatory factor analysis; factorial invariance; medical and psychology students.


Abolghasemi, A., & Taklavi-Varaniyab, S. (2010). Resilience and perceived stress: Predictors of life satisfaction in the students of success and failure. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 748–752. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.178

Armenta, C. N., Fritz, M. M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2017). Functions of positive emotions: Gratitude as a motivator of self-improvement and positive change. Emotion Review, 9(3), 183–190. doi: 10.1177/1754073916669596

Bacchi, S., & Licinio, J. (2017). Resilience and psychological distress in psychology and medical students. Academic Psychiatry, 41(2), 185–188. doi: 10.1007/s40596-016-0488-0

Barradas, M., Trujillo, P., Sanchez, A., & López, J. (2017). Student burnout in Veracruz university students. Revista Iberoamericana para la Investigación y el Desarrollo Educativo, 7(14), 1–19. doi: 10.23913/ride.v7i14.267

Barcelata, B. E., & Rodríguez, R. (2016). Desarrollo y validación de la escala de recursos potenciales para la resiliencia para adolescentes. Revista Latinoamericana de Medicina Conductual, 6(2), 75–87.

Bouteyre, E., Maurel, M., & Bernaud, J. L. (2007). Daily hassles and depressive symptoms among first year psychology students in France: The role of coping and social support. Stress and Health, 23(2), 93–99. doi: 10.1002/smi.1125

Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Byrne, B. M. (2016). Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming (3rd Ed.). New York: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9781315757421

Cabanach, R. G., Souto-Gestal, A., & Fernández, R. (2017). Perfiles de regulación emocional y estrés académico en estudiantes de fisioterapia. European Journal of Education and Psychology, 10(2), 57–67. doi: 10.1016/j.ejeps.2017.07.002

Campbell-Sills, L., & Stein, M. (2007). Psychometric analysis and refinement of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC): Validation of a 10-item measure of resilience. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(6), 1019–1028. doi: 10.1002/jts.20271

Chen, C. (2016). The role of resilience and coping styles in subjective well-being among chinese university students. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25(3), 377–387. doi: 10.1007/s40299-016-0274-5

Clark, E., & Senik, C. (2011). Is happiness different from flourishing? Cross-country evidence from the ESS. Revue d’économie Politique, 121(1), 17–34. doi: 10.3917/redp.211.0017

Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., Mermelstein, R., Health, J., Behavior, S., & Dec, N. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4), 385–396. doi: 10.2307/2136404

Cohn, M. A., Fredrickson, B. L., Brown, S. L., Mikels, J. A., & Conway, A. M. (2009). Happiness unpacked: Positive emotions increase life satisfaction by building resilience. Emotion, 9(3), 361–368. doi: 10.1037/a0015952

Coffin, N., Alvaréz, M., & Marín, A. (2011). Depresión e ideación suicida en estudiantes de la FESI: Un estudio piloto. Revista Electrónica de Psicología Iztacala, 14(4), 341–354.

Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18(2), 76–82. doi: 10.1002/da.10113

Cotonieto-Martínez E., Crespo-Jiménez, K. F., Valencia-Ortiz, A. I., & García-Cruz, R. (2019). Mental health among college users of mental health services: Suicide risk screening and prevention strategies. Journal of Negative and No Positive Results, 5(2), 167–79. doi: 10.19230/jonnpr.3234

Cuadra L. H., & Florenzano U. R. (2011). El bienestar subjetivo: Hacia una psicología positiva. Revista de Psicología, 12(1), 83–96. doi: 10.5354/0719-0581.2003.17380

Cutuli, J. J., Herbers, J. E., Masten, A. S. & Reed, M. G. J. (2018). Resilience in development. In C. R. Snyder., S. J. Lopez., L. M. Edwards., & S. C. Marques (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology (3rd Ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199396511.013.9

Davidson, J. R., Payne, V. M., Connor, K. M., Foa, E. B., Rothbaum, B. O., Hertzberg, M. A., & Weisler, R. H. (2005). Trauma, resilience, and allostasis: Effects of treatment in post-traumatic stress disorder. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 20(1), 43–48.

Domínguez-Lara, S. A., & Merino-Soto, C. (2017). Versión breve de la escala de afrontamiento ante la ansiedad e incertidumbre preexamen (COPEAU) en universitarios peruanos. Educación Médica, 19(2), 67–72. doi: 10.1016/j.edumed.2017.04.011

Enns, A., Eldridge, G. D., Montgomery, C., & González, V. M. (2018). Perceived stress, coping strategies, and emotional intelligence: A cross-sectional study of university students in helping disciplines. Nurse Education Today, 68, 226–231. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2018.06.012

Extremera, N., Durán, A., & Rey, L. (2007). Perceived emotional intelligence and dispositional optimism-pessimism: Analyzing their role in predicting psychological adjustment among adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 1069–1079. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.09.014

Fares, J., Tabosh, H., Saadeddin, Z., El Mouhayyar, C., & Aridi, H. (2016). Stress, burnout and coping strategies in preclinical medical students. North American Journal of Medical Sciences, 8(2), 75–81. doi: 10.4103/1947-2714.177299

Farquhar, J., Kamei, R., & Vidyarthi, A. (2018). Strategies for enhancing medical student resilience: Student and faculty member perspectives. International Journal of Medical Education, 9, 1–6. doi: 10.5116/ijme.5a46.1ccc

Faye, A., Tadke, R., Gawande, S., Kirpekar, V., Bhave, S., Pakhare, A., Singh, D., & Nadpara, J. (2018). Assessment of resilience and coping in undergraduate medical students: A need of the day. Journal of Education Technology in Health Sciences, 5(1), 36–44. doi: 10.18231/2393-8005.2018.0008

Fredrickson, B. L., & Joiner, T. (2018). Reflections on positive emotions and upward spirals. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 194–199. doi: 10.1177/1745691617692106

Galván-Molina, J. F., Jiménez-Capdeville, M. E., Hernández-Mata, J. M., & Arellano-Cano, J. R. (2017). Sistema de tamizaje de psicopatología en estudiantes de medicina. Gaceta Medica de México, 153, 75–87.

García-Cadena, C., Téllez, A., Ramírez, G., Ramírez, E., & Pérez, E. (2016). Toward a Global Conceptualization and Measurement in Positive Psychology. In R. Bowers (Ed.), Psychological Well-Being. Cultural Influences, Measurement Strategies and Health Implications (pp. 21–42). New York: Nova Science Publisher.

Gillham, J., Adams-Deutsch, Z., Werner, J., Reivich, K., Coulter-Heindl, V., Linkins, M., … Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Character strengths predict subjective well-being during adolescence. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(1), 31–44. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2010.536773

González-Arratia, N. I., & Valdez, J. L. (2013). Resiliencia: Diferencias por edad en hombres y mujeres mexicanos. Acta de Investigación Psicológica, 3(1), 941–955. doi: 10.1016/S2007-4719(13)70944-X

González-Arratia, N. I., & Valdez, J. L. (2012). Optimismo-pesimismo y resiliencia en adolescentes de una universidad pública. Ciencia Ergo Sum, 19(3), 207–214. doi: 20.500.11799/38216

González-Arratia, N. I., Valdez, J. L., & Zavala, Y. C. (2008). Resiliencia en adolescentes mexicanos. Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia, 13(1), 41–52. doi: 10.0185-1594

González, M. T., & Landero, R. (2007). Factor structure of the perceived stress scale (PSS) in a sample from Mexico. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 10(1), 199–206.

Houpy, J. C., Lee, W. W., Woodruff, J. N., & Pincavage, A. T. (2017). Medical student resilience and stressful clinical events during clinical training. Medical Education Online, 22(1), 1–8. doi: 10.1080/10872981.2017.1320187

John, O. P., & Soto, C. J. (2007). The importance of being valid: Reliability and the process of construct validation. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. F. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of Research Methods in Personality Psychology (pp. 461–494). New York: Guildford Press

Lent, R. W., & Brown, S. D. (2008). Social cognitive career theory and subjective well-being in the context of work. Journal of Career Assessment, 16(1), 6–21. doi: 10.1177/1069072707305769

Linley, P. A. (2003). Positive adaptation to trauma: Wisdom as both process and outcome. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16(6), 601–610. doi: 10.1023/B:JOTS.0000004086.64509.09

Lopes, V. R., & Martins, M. C. F. (2011). Validação fatorial da escala de resiliência de Connor-Davidson (CD-RISC-10) para brasileiros. Revista Psicologia: Organizações e Trabalho, 11(2), 36–50.

Lü, W., Wang, Z., Liu, Y., & Zhang, H. (2014). Resilience as a mediator between extraversion, neuroticism and happiness, PA and NA. Personality and Individual Differences, 63, 128–133. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.01.015

Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71(3), 543–562. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00164

Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137–155. doi: 10.1023/A:1006824100041

Marrero, R. J., González, J. A., & Carballeira, M. (2014). Relación entre bienestar subjetivo, optimismo y variables sociodemográficas en estudiantes universitarios de la Universidad de San Luis Potosí en México. Universitas Psychologica, 13(3), 1083–1098. doi: 10.11144/Javeriana.UPSY13-3.rbso

Masten, A. S. (2007). Resilience in developing systems: Progress and promise as the fourth wave rises. Development and Psychopathology, 19(3), 921–930. doi: 10.1017/S0954579407000442

Medina-Mora, M. E., Borges, G., Lara, C., Benjet, C., Blanco, J., Fleiz, C., Villato, J., Rojas, E., Zambrano, J., Casanova, L., & Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. (2003). Prevalencia de trastornos mentales y uso de servicios: Resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Epidemiología Psiquiátrica en México. Salud Mental, 26(4), 1–16.

Monjezi, Z., & Naderi, F. (2016). The comparison between resilience, responsibility and subjective well-being (SWB) amongst male and female physicians in Ahvaz, Iran. Social Sciences (Pakistan), 11(9), 1999–2005. doi: 10.3923/sscience.2016.1999.2005

Moral, J. (2019). Revisión de los criterios para validez convergente estimada a través de la Varianza Media Extraída. Psychologia, 13(2), 25–41. doi: 10.21500/19002386.4119

Munévar, F. R., Vargas, L. B., Borda, D. B., Alpi, S. V., & Quiceno, J. M. (2017). Análisis psicométrico del Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10) en población universitaria colombiana. Psicología desde el Caribe, 34(3), 61–69.

Muñiz, J., & Hambleton, R. K. (1996). Directrices para la traducción y adaptación de los tests. Papeles del Psicólogo, 66(1), 63–70.

Muñiz, J. (1999). Teoría Clásica de los Test (2nd Ed.). Madrid: Pirámide.

Navarro-Mateu, F., Morán-Sánchez, I., Alonso, J., Tormo, M. J., Pujalte, M. L., Garriga, A., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Navarro, C. (2013). Cultural adaptation of the Latin American version of the world health organization composite international diagnostic interview (WHO-CIDI) (v 3.0) for use in Spain. Gaceta Sanitaria, 27(4), 325–331. doi: 10.1016/j.gaceta.2012.06.005

Notario-Pacheco, B., Solera-Martínez, M., Serrano-Parra, M. D., Bartolomé-Gutiérrez, R., García-Campayo, J., & Martínez-Vizcaíno, V. (2011). Reliability and validity of the spanish version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC) in young adults. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 9(63), 1–6. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-9-63

Palomar, J., & Gómez, N. (2010). Desarrollo de una escala de medición de la resilienca con Mexicanos (RESI-M). Revista Interdisciplinaria, 27(1), 7–22.

Peterson, C. (2006). A Primer in Positive Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Quezada, L., Landero, R., & González, M. T. (2016). A Validity and reliability study of the subjective happiness scale in Mexico. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, 4(1), 90–100.

Rodríguez-Hernández, G. (2019). The eudemonic and hedonic role of happiness in a population with high levels of life satisfaction. Revista de Psicología Social, 34(2), 230–255. doi: 10.1080/02134748.2019.1576323

Rodríguez. M. N., & Ruiz, M. A. (2008). Atenuación de la asimetría y de la curtosis de las puntuaciones observadas mediante transformaciones de variables: Incidencia sobre la estructura factorial. Psicológica, 29(2), 205–227.

Ruiz-Aranda, D., Extremera, N., & Pineda-Galán, C. (2014). Emotional intelligence, life satisfaction and subjective happiness in female student health professionals: The mediating effect of perceived stress. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 21(2), 106–113. doi: 10.1111/jpm.12052

Rutter, M. (2012). Resilience as a dynamic concept. Development and Psychopathology, 24(2), 335–344. doi: 10.1017/S0954579412000028

Smith, G. D., & Yang, F. (2017). Stress, resilience and psychological well-being in chinese undergraduate nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 49, 90–95. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2016.10.004

Souri, H., & Hasanirad, T. (2011). Relationship Between resilience, optimism and psychological well-being in students of medicine. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1541–1544. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.10.299

Suhr, D. (2006). Exploratory or confirmatory factor analysis. Proceedings from the SAS users group international conference (pp. 200–231). Cary: SAS Institute, Inc.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2019). Using Multivariate Statistics (7th Ed.). New York: Pearson.

Tourunen, A., Siltanen, S., Saajanaho, M., Koivunen, K., Kokko, K., & Rantanen, T. (2019). Psychometric properties of the 10-item Connor–Davidson resilience scale among Finnish older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 1–8. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2019.1683812

Tugade, M. M., Fredrickson, B. L., & Barrett, L. F. (2004). Psychological resilience and positive emotional granularity: Examining the benefits of positive emotions on coping and health. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1161–1190. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00294.x

Ungar, M. (2008). Resilience across cultures. The British Journal of Social Work, 38(2), 218–235. doi: 10.1093/bjsw/bcl343

Vaughn, L., Gonzalez, J., & Baker, R. (2001). Microburst teaching and learning. Medical Teacher, 23(1), 39–43. doi: 10.1080/0142159002005569

Vizoso-Gómez, C. & Arias-Gundín, C. V. O. (2018). Resiliencia, optimismo y burnout académico en estudiantes universitarios. European Journal of Education and Psychology, 11, 47–59. doi: 10.30552/ejep.v11i1.185

Wagner, F. A., González-Forteza, C., Sánchez-García, S., García-Peña, C., & Gallo, J. J. (2012). Enfocando la depresión como problema de salud pública en México. Salud Mental, 35(1), 3–11.

Widaman, K. F., Little, T. D., Preacher, K. J., & Sawalini, G. M. (2011). On creating and using short forms of scales in secondary research. In K. H. Trzesniewski, M. B. Donnellan, & R. E. Lucas (Eds.), Secondary Data Analysis: An Introduction for Psychologists (pp. 39–61). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/12350-003

Wilson, M. (2005). Constructing Measures. An Item Response Modeling Approach. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Ye, Z. J., Qiu, H. Z., Li, P. F., Chen, P., Liang, M. Z., Liu, M.L., Yu, Y. L., Wang, S. N., & Quan, X. M. (2017). Validation and application of the Chinese version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10) among parents of children with cancer diagnosis. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 27, 36–44. doi: 10.1016/j.ejon.2017.01.






Investigación empírica y análisis teórico